J S Afr Inst Min Metall 110:743, CAS Energy of first ionisation. Join us at http://www.geosociety.org/, The On the Cutting Edge website and workshop program are supported by the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT). 540/ 1–86–019. Health effects assessment for trivalent chromium. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:1665–1669, World Health Organization (WHO) (2003) Chromium in drinking-water. 131-137. SASTRY and SUNITA TYAGI Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, D.A.V. The effects include death, inhibition of growth, photosynthesis and reproduction, and behavioral effects. There are currently no standards or regulations regarding hazard mitigation. J Hazard Mater 161:657–662, Long D, Tang X, Cai K, Chen G, Chen L, Duan D, Zhu J, Chen Y (2013) Cr(VI) reduction by a potent novel alkaliphilic halotolerant strain Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum LY10. (1) Acute animal tests have shown chromium (III) to have moderate toxicity from oral exposure. Increases in Chromium III are due to leather, textile, and steel manufacturing; Chromium VI enters the environment through some of the same channels such as leather and textile manufacturing, but also due to industrial applications such as electro painting and chemical manufacturing. Join NAGT today. Environ Sci Technol 36:464A–472A, Fude L, Harris B, Urrutia MM, Beveridge TJ (1994) Reduction of Cr(VI) by a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB III). Breathing high levels of chromium (VI) can cause irritation to the nose, such as runny nose, nosebleeds, and ulcers and holes in the nasal septum. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. There are two forms of chromium: trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. Chromium VI (hexavalent chromium) is considered carcinogenic only to animals in certain circumstances at this point; chromium in general is currently not classified as a carcinogen as the OSHA and is fairly unregulated, but is considered toxic, level 3. Hexavalent chromium, also known as chromium 6 (Cr6), is the toxic form of the metal chromium. Water Air Soil Pollut 200:59–77, Pal A, Datta S, Paul AK (2013) Hexavalent chromium reduction by immobilized cells of Bacillus sphaericus AND 303. Chromium occurs in the environment largely in two forms: trivalent chromium (chromium 3), which is an essential human nutrient, and hexavalent chromium (chromium 6), which is toxic. Min Process Extractive Metall 119:101–106, Shafique M, Jawaid A, Rehman Y (2017) As(V) reduction, As(III) oxidation, and Cr(VI) reduction by multi-metal-resistant Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus safensis, and Bacillus cereus species isolated from wastewater treatment plant. View Full Essay. In addition to work by Karen Wetterhahn, Silvio DeFlora and his colleagues demonstrated that many of the other fluids of the body have very high levels of chromium reducing chemicals, resulting in a large capacity to reduce chromium+6 outside the cells of the body. What is toxic, what is lethal? Many studies have been carried out on heavy metals to understand their detrimental effects in the ecosystem. Boiling point. Academic Press, Boston, Holappa L, Xiao Y (2004) Slags in ferroalloys production-review of present knowledge. Chromium can affect the air quality through coal manufacturing, which eventally can lead to water or soil contamination. Trivalent Chromium … The respiratory tract is also the major target organ for chromium (III) toxicity, similar to chromium (VI). Inhalation of a high levels of cadmium can also cause severe, life-threatening effects on the lungs. Other metals are chromium, copper, manganese nickel, tin and zinc once dispersed in the biosphere these metals cannot be recovered or degraded. Adverse effects include death, poor growth and failure to reproduce. J South Afr Inst Min Metall 86:37–50, Hsc 7.1 Outotec Research Oy Antti Roine (2013) Thermodynamical and process calculation software. Braz J Microbiol 44:307–315, Schlautman MA, Han I (2001) Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on the reduction of hexavalent chromium by dissolved ferrous iron in poorly buffered aqueous systems. The Effects: Environment. Cadmium metals have a white silvery and bluish tinged surface color. strain CSCr-3 from chromium landfill. Water Res 42:4538–4548, Motzer WE, Engineers T (2004) Chemistry, geochemistry, and geology of chromium and chromium compounds. Teach the Earth the portal for Earth Education, From NAGT's On the Cutting Edge Collection. The environmental impact of paint is diverse. Groundwater contamination may occur due to seepage from chromate mines or improper disposal of mining tools and supplies, and improper disposal of industrial manufacturing equipment. The body appears to have normal defense mechanisms that protect against the harmful effects of chromium. Br J Nutr 52:73–77, Chai L, Huang S, Yang Z, Peng B, Huang Y, Chen Y (2009) Cr(VI) remediation by indigenous bacteria in soils contaminated by chromium-containing slag. Toxic Contam Great Lakes 14:81–103, Sedumedi HN, Mandiwana KL, Ngobeni P, Panichev N (2009) Speciation of Cr(VI) in environmental samples in the vicinity of the ferrochrome smelter. Appl Mech Mater 144:1096–1099, Wang PC, Mori T, Komori K, Sasatsu M, Toda K, Ohtake H (1989) Isolation and characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae strain that reduces hexavalent chromium under anaerobic conditions. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. U.S, Van Staden Y, Beukes JP, Van Zyl PG, Du Toit JS, Dawson NF (2014) Characterisation and liberation of chromium from fine ferrochrome waste materials. WZ2 and their bioremediation potential. In contrast, hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)) is highly toxic carcinogen and may cause death to animals and humans if ingested in large doses. Chemosphere 167:269–281, Barnhart J (1997) Occurrences, uses, and properties of chromium. About this essay More essays like this: erin brockovich, chromium. The nature of the effects depends on the species and time of exposure. Harmful algal bloomssometimes create toxins that are detrimental to fish and other animals. Chromium(VI) is known to cause various health effects. Heavy exposure to chromium(IV) has been reported to cause the following debilitating symptoms in individuals working in such hazardous conditions: In addition to these, workers working in chromium-exposed environment reported dizziness, headaches, and fatigue. Bosnir J(1), Puntarić D, Cvetković Z, Pollak L, Barusić L, Klarić I, Miskulin M, Puntarić I, Puntarić E, Milosević M. Author information: (1)Institute of Public Health Andrija Stampar, Zagreb, Croatia. http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/cr.htm, http://www.livestrong.com/article/482915-maximum-dosage-of-chromium/, http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/chromium/chromium-and-water.htm, Science in the Courtroom: The Woburn Toxic Trial, Environmental Justice and Water Resources, All Geology and Health related materials from across Teach the Earth, Schedule of Upcoming Workshops and Webinars, https://serc.carleton.edu/serc/about/whats_new.html. Chromium in Environment, Its Toxic Effect from Chromite-Mining and Ferrochrome Industries, and Its Possible Bioremediation. Chromium may enter the natural waters by weathering of Cr-containing rocks, direct discharge from industrial operations, leaching of soils, among others. However, according to the Environmental Literacy Council, ionized radiation that occurs from n… Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/04, Xiao W, Ye X, Yang X, Zhu Z, Sun C, Zhang Q, Xu P (2017) Isolation and characterization of chromium(VI)-reducing Bacillus sp. J Hazard Mater 167:516–522, Cheung KH, Gu JD (2007) Mechanism of hexavalent chromium detoxification by microorganisms and bioremediation application potential: a review. 4.47 g .cm-3 at 20°C. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/, Short URL: https://serc.carleton.edu/68791. Am J Ind Med 38:127–131, Glastonbury R, Van Der Merwe W, Beukes J, Van Zyl P, Lachmann G, Steenkamp C, Dawson N, Stewart H (2010) Cr(VI) generation during sample preparation of solid samples: a chromite ore case study. EPA … Desal Water Treat 52:4190–4196, Tekerlekopoulou AG, Tsiflikiotou M, Akritidou L, Viennas A, Tsiamis G, Pavlou S, Bourtzis K, Vayenas DV (2013) Modelling of biological Cr(VI) removal in draw-fill reactors using microorganisms in suspended and attached growth systems. J Hazard Mater 172:1686–1689, Sen R, Mukherjee S (2010) Maximisation of chromium content of ferrochrome in DC arc smelting. It has high value in the industrial world because it can be polished to a mirror-like finish, and provides a durable, highly rust resistant coating, for heavy applications. Google Scholar, Daly R, Manger GE, Clark SP (1966) Section 4: density of rocks. Elsevier Inc, Amsterdam, Venter AD, Beukes JP, Gideon Van Zyl P, Josipovic M, Jaars K, Vakkari V (2016) Regional atmospheric Cr(VI) pollution from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The whole world needs to know about pollution and take steps to reduce it, because the negative effects of pollution are serious and potentially fatal. Copper pollution in the environment comes from human activities and natural sources. Chromium occurs in the environment largely in two forms: trivalent chromium (chromium 3), which is an essential human nutrient, and hexavalent chromium (chromium 6), which is toxic. Google Scholar, Allard B (1995) Groundwater. Google Scholar, Bharagava RN, Mishra S (2018) Hexavalent chromium reduction potential of Cellulosimicrobium sp. S Afr J Sci 95:525, Joutey NT, Sayel H, Bahafid W, El Ghachtouli N (2015) Mechanisms of hexavalent chromium resistance and removal by microorganisms. Chromium, For oral exposure, the signs include severe irritation of the stomach and intestines, ulcers, fever, vertigo, liver problems, muscle cramping, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. 10. Living organisms, both on land and in water, react in a variety of ways to arsenic exposure. Generally heavy metals have each their story. Tweet . Other metals are chromium, copper, manganese nickel, tin and zinc once dispersed in the biosphere these metals cannot be recovered or degraded. Bioprocessing for value-added products from renewable resources. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Join today and your membership will help ensure that this site can continue to serve geoscience educators. The waste materials produced by ferrochrome industry are slag, dust and processed water. 1500 °C. Almost a year after harmful heavy metals like cadmium, chromium and lead were found in dozens of pesticides, the government is yet to enforce mandatory tests … Manufacturing of red brick on the Blue Nile banks has multiple environmental effects on vegetation life that are, herbaceous, woody shrubs, trees, soil, air, people and animals. Chromium III is much less toxic than chromium (VI). J Hazard Mater 163:869–873, Hemond HF, Fechner EJ (2015) Chapter 3—the subsurface environment. Soil Sed Contam 6:569–580, Jones R (1999) Platinum in South Africa to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the discovery of the Merensky Reef. Chromium VI is the most dangerous form of chromium and may cause health problems including: allergic reactions, skin rash, nose irritations and nosebleed, ulsers, weakened immune system, genetic material alteration, kidney and liver damage, and may even go as far as death of the individual. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:1525–1531, Gericke WA (2001) Bacterial reduction of hexavalent chromium: a viable environmental solution to the treatment of effluent from a ferrochrome smelter pp. Material on this page is offered under a
PubMed Google Scholar. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia 7:963–967, Mohan D, Pittman CU (2006) Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Guertin J, Jacobs JA, Avakian CP (2016) Chromium(VI) handbook. Several electronic gadgets such as computer mobile phones contain toxic materials like zinc, nickel, lead, flame retardants, chromium and barium. Cr(VI) is considered to be more toxic than Cr(III) due to its high solubility and mobility. Organic geochemistry. Chemosphere 86:847–852, Saha R, Nandi R, Saha B (2011) Sources and toxicity of hexavalent chromium. Environmental Protection Agency. In humans, chromium causes a myriad of ailments depending on how it is absorbed. It has high value in the industrial world because it can be polished to a mirror-like finish, and provides a durable, highly rust resistant coating, for heavy applications. Geol Soc Am Mem 97:19–26, Dhal B, Thatoi HN, Das NN, Pandey BD (2013) Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review. Subscription will auto renew annually. WORDS 737. J Coord Chem 64:1782–1806, Samantaray D, Mohapatra S, Mishra BB (2014) 14—Microbial bioremediation of industrial effluents A2Das—Surajit. Toxicology Letters, 11 (1982) 17-21 17 Elsevier Biomical Press TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHROMIUM IN A FRESHWATER TELEOST FISH, CHANNA PUNCTA TVS K.V. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:2433–2438, Niemelä P, Kauppi M (2007) Production, characteristics and use of ferrochromium slags. It is necessary for many plants to receive some form of non-ionizing radiation 3⭐⭐This is a verified and trusted source Goto Source . Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 97:90–96, Zhu Y (2007) Chapter 14 - Immobilized cell fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels A2 – Yang, Shang-Tian. Microbial biodegradation and bioremediation. Examples of Secondary Pollutants. Hence environmental effects of metal pollution are said to be permanent. Introduction. However, these factors, and particularly the toxic effects of heavy metals, have not been completely evaluated. Harmful Effects of Chromium Hexavalent Exposure. Cadmium on the periodic table. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:63–73, Berrow ML, Reaves GA (1986) Total chromium and nickel contents of Scottish soils. NAGT continues to support the crucial movement and petition for the Call for a Robust Anti-racism Plan for the Geosciences. Chromium(IV) has toxic and carcinogenic properties, whereas high levels of chromium(III) could even lead to damaging of the DNA. volume 12, pages51–62(2020)Cite this article. Water SA 40:709–716, Loyaux-Lawniczak S, Lecomte P, Ehrhardt J-J (2001) Behavior of Hexavalent Chromium in a polluted groundwater: redox processes and immobilization in soils. While chromium III is essential for regular operation of human vascular and metabolic systems as well as combating diabetes, too much chromium III may result in severe skin rash, or other more serious symptoms. Bioremediat J 21:100–108, Zelić J (2005) Properties of concrete pavements prepared with ferrochromium slag as concrete aggregate. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Gzik A, Kuehling M, Schneider I, Tschochner B (2003) Heavy metal contamination of soils in a mining area in South Africa and its impact on some biotic systems. J Soils Sediments 3:29–34, Hamann R (2004) Corporate social responsibility, partnerships, and institutional change: the case of mining companies in South Africa. Health effects assessment for trivalent chromium. Correspondence to Continuous exposure to chromium in a long time has the potential to cause renal function impairment. Manufacturing companies dealing with copper in the production of metal, electrical appliances, pesticides, fungicides and other products containing copper, often release contaminated water into the drainage system which leads to streams and … The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. It is toxic to microorganism, plants, animals and humans. Chromium (Cr) is one of the substances used in the electroplating industry. Chem Eng J 169:107–115, Katz SA, Salem H (1993) The toxicology of chromium with respect to its chemical speciation: a review. strain ES6. Print . It is toxic to microorganism, plants, animals and humans. 1.2. "Elemantal Chromium" - imagesofelements.com, « Arsenic: is it a "Real Killer" Lead in Drinking Water », Discover a selection of new teaching materials and resources for educators, programs, and institutions found on SERC-hosted websites. Chromium is one of the major inorganic environmental pollutants, which is added in the environment through various natural and anthropogenic activities and exists mainly in two forms: Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Trends Microbiol 14:389–397, Suzuki T, Miyata N, Horitsu H, Kawai K, Takamizawa K, Tai Y, Okazaki M (1992) NAD(P)H-dependent chromium (VI) reductase of Pseudomonas ambigua G-1: a Cr(V) intermediate is formed during the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). While some less toxic forms of chromium occur naturally in the environment (soil, rocks, dust, plants, and animals), Cr6 is mainly produced by industrial processes. J Hazard Mater 175:1042–1047, Focardi S, Pepi M, Landi G, Gasperini S, Ruta M, Di Biasio P, Focardi SE (2012) Hexavalent chromium reduction by whole cells and cell free extract of the moderate halophilic bacterial strain Halomonas sp. 1. CAS Potential Toxic Effects of Chromium, Chromite Mining . Environ Health Perspect 108:A402–A407, Polti MA, García RO, Amoroso MJ, Abate CM (2009) Bioremediation of chromium(VI) contaminated soil by Streptomyces sp. Cem Concr Res 35:2340–2349, Zheng Z, Li Y, Zhang X, Liu P, Ren J, Wu G, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Li X (2015) A Bacillus subtilis strain can reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent and an nfrA gene is involved. Mikrobiologiia 46:414–417, Sagar S, Dwivedi A, Yadav S, Tripathi M, Kaistha SD (2012) Hexavalent chromium reduction and plant growth promotion by Staphylococcus arlettae Strain Cr11. Strain Ch1. EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT USING ... and the environment to harmful or deleterious effects. Environ Technol 12:915–921, Article Effects of magnesium, chromium, iron and zinc from food supplements on selected aquatic organisms. Chromium(VI) Handbook. (1984). The trivalent form is found in foods (and will be the focus of the following information). Proceedings of the 11th International Ferro Alloys Conference. Bioremediation can be in situ or ex situ, and choice of remediation method depends upon the extent of pollution and the nature of the site. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Molokwane PE, Meli KC, Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa EM (2008) Chromium(VI) reduction in activated sludge bacteria exposed to high chromium loading: Brits culture (South Africa). Chromium in the environment . Cincinnati, OH: Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental and Criteria Assessment Office, 1984. Learn more about this project. Biotechnol Bioeng 101:1150–1162, Viti C, Marchi E, Decorosi F, Giovannetti L (2014) Molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) resistance in bacteria and fungi. Ironmaking Steelmaking 33:229–237, Manning DA, Gize AP (1993) The role of organic matter in ore transport processes. Creative Commons license unless otherwise noted below. Springer, New York, Fiúza A, Silva A, Carvalho G, De La Fuente AV, Delerue-Matos C (2010) Heterogeneous kinetics of the reduction of chromium (VI) by elemental iron. Related. Water Res 25:807–816, Romanenko V, Koren’kov V (1977) Pure culture of bacteria using chromates and bichromates as hydrogen acceptors during development under anaerobic conditions. 2 Minute Read The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole. Harmful algal blooms cause thick, green muck that impacts clear water, recreation, businesses and property values. By Joseph Kiprop on June 4 2018 in Environment. strain HCF1. J Hazard Mater 256:24–32, Loock M, Beukes J, Van Zyl P (2014) A survey of Cr(VI) contamination of surface water in the proximity of ferrochromium smelters in South Africa. - 220.127.116.11. Exactly what I needed. Comprehensive biotechnology. Teeth discoloration was also observed. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Kathiravan MN, Karthick R, Muthukumar K (2011) Ex situ bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil by Bacillus sp. J Appl Toxicol 13:217–224, Kieber RJ, Willey JD, Zvalaren SD (2002) Chromium speciation in rainwater: temporal variability and atmospheric deposition. In: Aalbu B, Steinnes E (eds) Trace elements in natural waters. Miner Eng 56:112–120, Vayenas DV (2011) Attached growth biological systems in the treatment of potable water and wastewater. If a high concentration of cadmium reaches the lungs, symptoms usually do not appear for 4 to 10 hours, at which point the tiny air sacks in the lungs, the alveoli, may begin to hemorrhage, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry reports. IOP Conf Ser 180:012296, Mutemeri N, Petersen FW (2002) Small–scale mining in South Africa: past, present and future. Environ Pollut 107:263–283, Kumar PH, Srivastava A, Kumar V, Majhi MR, Singh VK (2014) Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: effect of microsilica addition. Chromium (III) is an essential element in humans, with a daily intake of 50 to 200 µg/d recommended for adults. There are two known forms: trivalent (chromium 3+) and hexavalent (chromium 6+). When it is a compound in leather products, it can cause allergic reactions, such as skin rash. The excavation of copper in mines creates dust rich with the metal and wind can spread it around the mine site. Despite this difference, chromium is regulated in drinking water as “total chromium” at a level of 50 parts per billion. The proliferation and deposition of many toxic substances have affected the aquatic system (Schulz et al., 2015).Chromium (Cr) is one of the most common heavy metal contaminants (Brady et al., 2015; Cheng, 2003), which are closely related to human health and daily life. Natural radiation is often beneficial to plant growth 3⭐⭐This is a verified and trusted source Goto Source . Last Updated May 15th, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-0284-z, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-0284-z, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 0.106 nm (+3) Isotopes. J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:855, Cramer L, Basson J, Nelson L (2004) The impact of platinum production from UG2 ore on ferrochrome production in South Africa. Health effects assessment for hexavalent chromium. It is concentrated in bone, blood, organs.... What are the tolerances? Environmental Protection Agency. MC1. Electronic shell [ Kr ] 4d 1 5s 2. Nat Res Forum 26:286–292, Nancharaiah YV, Dodge C, Venugopalan VP, Narasimhan SV, Francis AJ (2010) Immobilization of Cr(VI) and its reduction to Cr(III) phosphate by granular biofilms comprising a mixture of microbes. chemical fate and transport in the environment, 3rd edn. J Appl Toxicol 13:225–230, Wang YT (2000) Microbial reduction of chromate. Chromium is used in many industrial applications, but it poses a threat to local environment. Melting point. It i … Chromium occurs in the environment predominantly in one of two valence states: trivalent chromium (Cr III), which occurs naturally and is an essential nutrient, and hexavalent chromium (Cr VI), which, along with the less common metallic chromium (Cr 0), is most commonly produced by industrial processes. This case study is part of a collection of pages developed by students in the 2012 introductory-level Geology and Human Health course in the Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 62:569–573, Casey CE, Hambidge KM (1984) Chromium in human milk from American mothers. Chromium enters the environment through both natural processes and human activities. In recent years, chromium has become a major environmental pollutant as it widely used in making alloys, electroplating of stainless steel, production of pigments. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Biometals 21:321–332, Rao STH, Papathoti NK, Gundeboina R, Mohamed YK, Mudhole G, Bee H (2017) Hexavalent chromium reduction from pollutant samples by Achromobacter xylosoxidans SHB 204 and its Kinetics Study. J Hazard Mater 223:46–52, Munawaroh HSH, Gumilar GG, Nandiyanto ABD, Kartikasari S, Kusumawaty D, Hasanah L (2017) Microbial reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) by locally isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (LennTech). Springer, New York, Mclean J, Beveridge TJ (2001) Chromate reduction by a pseudomonad isolated from a site contaminated with chromated copper arsenate. Your membership is helping to ensure that this site can continue to serve geoscience educators. [ 4 ] [ 8 ] Exposure has been linked to immunity disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, congenital disorders, DNA damage, and disruption of bodily processes. Expo Health 12, 51–62 (2020). D. E. Kimbrough, Y. Cohen, A. M. Winer, L. Creelman, and C. Mabuni, “A critical assessment of chromium in the environment,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1847–1853, Azubuike CC, Chikere CB, Okpokwasili GC (2016) Bioremediation techniques–classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects. We support geoscience education at every level. Learn More. Recently, concern about Cr as an environmental … Water contaminated with chromium will not build up in fish when consumed, but will accumulate on the gills, thus, causing negative health effects for aquatic animals; chromium uptake results in increased mortality rates in fish due to contamination. D ( 1993 ) the role of organic matter in ore transport processes limit for human.... Of concrete pavements prepared with ferrochromium slag as concrete aggregate connected to sinus, nasal, geology... 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Ak ( 2013 ) Thermodynamical and process calculation software present knowledge, chromium can cause pollution to the of. And has an atomic mass of 112.4g/mole an urgent matter two known forms: Cr ( VI handbook... ) Peer reviewed: in situ treatment of chromium-contaminated Groundwater 1 ) Acute tests... Techniques to convert the high-toxic form of chromium and the environment to harmful or deleterious effects tells about... Y-T ( 1994 ) Modeling hexavalent chromium form is found in foods ( and will be the focus the! Shouche Y, Madamwar D ( 1986 ) chromium occurrence in the.... J appl Toxicol 13:225–230, Wang YT ( 2000 ) Reflections on chromium. Iron and zinc from food supplements on selected aquatic organisms considered hazardous by the National Priorities List NPL... Nasal, and there is, however, these factors, and one the. And failure to reproduce Goto source wastes containing chromium are considered hazardous the. 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