Electrical conductivity is actually a measure of the ionic activity of a solution in terms of its capacity to transmit current [17]. Water quality The groundwater or surface water quality is a function of natural influences and human activities either severally or collectively. 2.3 Water Quality Impacts of Agriculture Agricultural production releases residuals that may degrade the quality of the Nation’s water resources and impose ... study how human activities and natural factors affect water quality (Gilliom, Alley, and Gurtz, 1995). 4). F The guidance provid… − Working off-campus? (5). Activities in and around River Densu Basin poses a threat to the quality of the river. = 100 2 However, the observed mean concentrations of Mn for 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2015 were higher than the WHO guideline for drinking water (Table 2). Contaminants can impair water quality and affect water use. Effects on soil and water quality are indirect and complex, and subsequent impacts on natural, ecological and socio-economic conditions are intricate. The pH of aquatic systems is one of the most important water quality parameters because it is closely linked with biological productivity [17]. Table 2 present the results obtained from the descriptive statics of the average values over the six-year period. Unfortunately, most of these wastewaters generated in most developing countries find their way into the environment untreated. 21.17 0.3 (3). Introduction. 1.2, Iron 3 − F The index thus indicates the degree to which the natural water quality is affected by human activity. Pollution index and water quality index for 2010-2012. = It is mathematically expressed as: Table 1. This condition serves as a potential threat to the maintenance and reduction of current nitrate levels in the river. Number of failed test Worldwide public health concerns related to fresh drinking water are as follows: Safety from … 1 nse Figure 2 is the map of the study area within the Densu Basin. The river is further threatened by bauxite mining from where the river takes its sources as well as unregulated or illegal mining of gold in and around the river. Agricultural Activities ..... 9 4. 5 + Most of these threats are due to human activities. Exceeding the recommended alkalinity will affect aquatic plant growth [20] and also raise the cost of water treatment. ( Maintaining good water quality is essential to human health, the environment, agricultural industries and the recreational value of waterways, wetlands and coastal waters. 1 Human Influence on the Water Balance Human activity has the potential to indirectly and directly affect water quantity and the natural flow regime of a river system. 5 Also, the farming activities and wastewater discharge from domestic and industrial residence contribute to this menace. The effects of human-caused air pollution are not limited to people. Once the CCME WQI value has been determined, the water quality can be classified as Excellent (95 - 100), good (80 - 94), fair (65 - 79), marginal (45 - 64) and poor (0 - 44) [15]. F2 (Frequency) represents the percentage of individual tests that do not meet objectives (“failed tests”). This is mathematically expressed as: excursion Figure 1. Create awareness on impacts of current and projected climate change on water quality. This program is scheduled to continue for many years, and should provide valuable information on the linkages = According to the NPI results, five parameters namely turbidity, NH3, Fe, P, and Al were the principal pollutants from 2010 to 2015 whereas As, Mg, Zn, and Pb were found not to contribute to the pollution effect. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. Each of them has its own specific impact, usually directly on ecosystems and in turn on water resources. There was virtually no significant difference in TDS between 2010 and 2011: TDS for 2010 (M = 182.58, SE = 4.01) and 2011 (M = 183.83, SE = 3.72) at p = 0.05. Therefore this study is concerned with examining the impact of human activity along the canal’s banks on water and sediment quality, zoo- and phytoplankton standing crops and species composition, health of fish, and aquatic weeds especially at the intakes of water treatment plants along the Suez Irrigation Canal. 18.30 ) + Environmental Effects The effects of human-caused air pollution are not limited to people. The concentration of copper (Cu) exceeded the WHO standard for all the years except in 2011. 1 22, excursions ( − The drive for sustainable development must bring along water pollution prevention techniques. Water quality from agricultural effluents (live stock and arable agriculture) can modify the nutrient cycle of aquaticand terrestrial ecosystems. − The major impacts of silvicultural activities on water quality described here are: (1) changes in hydrological responses of watersheds, (2) increases in sedimentation, (3) increases in temperature, (4) reductions in dissol- ved oxygen content, (5) increases in nutrient content of streams, (6) effects on aquatic habitat and biota, and (7) effects on forested wetlands. = × It shares its northwestern boundary with the Birim Basin and the western boundary with Ayensu and Okrudu basins [13]. Urbanization within the basin could be a reason for the increase in alkalinity as cement and other urban construction materials may wash into the river during rain runoffs. The main Densu River takes its source from Atewa Range near Kibi and flows for 116 km into the Weija Reservoir before entering the Gulf of Guinea. % % Activities in and around River Densu Basin poses a threat to the quality of the river. + + The use of large volumes of potable water even though according to the millennium development goal 7 target 10 is a sign of improvement, is not really the case in this basin. The following discussion does not provide an exhaustive survey of all human effects but emphasizes those that are relatively widespread. For instance, [4] reports a crude and refined oil spill from tanker ships that damaged the vulnerable ecosystem and the Gulf of Mexico. ) ( Such conditions do not only make the water aesthetically unattractive but reduce its recreational potentials and may cause the death of many sensitive aquatic organisms [17]. 0.32 View at: Publisher Site| Google Scholar See in References , 2 1. ) Human Impacts to Water Quality While society has long focussed on water quantity - maintaining damvolumes, streamflow, water supply, etc. ) Another contributor to the reduced forest cover is the logging of timber for export and industrial activities as well as harvesting of fuelwood for domestic activities. Radiological contaminants: radiation from decaying radioactive elements, both naturally occurring from soil and bedrock and from radioactive waste deposited or leaking into water supplies Th… = Though there were fluctuations in the monthly recordings for the various years, the average conductivity was increasing with increasing total dissolved solids and vice versa every year over the study period. ( If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, please log in. Water quality comprises the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of a water body. These changes may be caused by either natural factors or human activities. Furthermore, most human activities generate waste ranging from gases to concentrated radioactive wastes. Water, however, is said to be polluted when some of the water quality parameters have been hampered by unguided and irregularities from several anthropogenic activities, thus rendering water unfit for intended use. Some of these are the direct result of human activities, whereas others are secondary effects that are part of a series of actions and reactions. The data for the assessment was secondary data (2010-2015) obtained from the Ghana Water Company Regional laboratory in Weija Accra Ghana. In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on the consequences of industrialization, urbanization and population growth on water resources. The pattern of occurrence was fluctuating for each year, recording between the ranges of 15 - 28 mg/L (Table 2). consequently consider aspects of the effect of human activities on the water quality and the total value of the wetland. The turbidity of River Densu from 2010 to 2015 escalated from 19NTU to 344.56 NTU. 1 Failed test value For the cases in which the test value must not fall below the objectives, the excursion is calculated as: excursion The concentration exceeding recommended value has a high potential to affect the health of those depending on the water directly for consumption should the ions be toxic or carcinogenic. Despite a growing commitment to stream restoration, some speculate that both the intensity of human impacts and the development of long-term legacies within watersheds have produced regime shifts … F3 (Amplitude) represents the difference in amount between the failed test values and their objectives. 1 Of the parameters polluting all the years, turbidity was the parameter with the highest progressive pollution index from 2010 to 2015 (Table 3). excursion 100 Objective Furthermore, most human activities generate waste ranging from gases to concentrated radioactive wastes. nse ( To put it bluntly: Water pollution kills. + Other factors contributing to the pollution and deterioration include agricultural runoffs and domestic activities in the River Basin. The summary of the Nemerow’s pollution index (NPI) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCMEWQI) is presented in Table3 and Table4. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Each group has 3 months; example January to March. Explanation: Our water systems are currently facing different threats. (4). In addition, there is an increasing farming population along the banks of the rivers [13]. ( Human settlement and land clearance for food production has been an integral part of Ghana’s history and has contributed to the deterioration in the quality water [11] [12]. What Are the Effects of Water Pollution? Although the TDS concentrations have not exceeded the recommended value, precautionary measures should be put in place to stabilize the fluctuations of TDS in the water before it escalates beyond the recommended value in the years ahead. − exceeded the permissible limit in all the study years. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The effects of human activities on water quality are both widespread and varied in the degree to which they disrupt the ecosystem and/or restrict water use. ) Human activities change land use and land cover, which changes the water balance and usually changes the relative importance of processes that control water quality. These negative impacts can affect human behavior and can prompt mass migrations or battles over clean water. F3 is then calculated by an asymptotic function that scales the normalized summed of the excursions from the objectives (nse) to yield a range between 0 and 100. Total number of variables This book mainly focuses on the impact of climate change and human activities on water quality and water resources in Asia Countries. Table A3. Table A1. They also reported changes in heart blood vessels over long term accumulation of nitrates. ) Even though none of the years under study recorded good or excellent water quality, the year 2010 and 2011 recorded fair (65 - 79) water quality index. The part of the river which was located near the city of Sparta was seasonally influenced by the discharge of effluents from orange … 2.3 Students first study and assess the quality of water from a simulated watershed and then from their own community. [27], reports of infant methemoglobinemia for ingestion of nitrates above 45 mg/L by infants up to six months. ( This difference may be due to fluctuations observed (Table 2) as the years progressed. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Acid rain, for example, is formed when emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide combine with moisture in the air to create acidic precipitation. 9.17 22 1 The Densu River is under serious threat of eutrophication, algal toxicity with related health hazards, resulting from indiscriminate disposal of waste, flooding, improper use of agro-chemicals, illegal fishing methods, leaching from waste dumps, effluent discharge and accidental spills from industries [13]. Copyright © 2006-2020 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved. In reality, water quality aspects are determined by waste water with high ... influenced by anthropological impacts. Cond = conductivity; TDS = total dissolved solids; TH = total hardness; TA = total alkalinity; CaH = Calcium hardness; MgH = magnesium hardness; Ca = calcium; Mg = magnesium; Al = Aluminium; Mn = manganese Bolded figures are above the WHO threshold. Untreated industrial waste discharge and saltwater intrusion may account for the presence of chlorides in the water. Although each issue can be subdivided into a myriad of … Problems associated with water quality are commonly attributed to nutrient, chemical and pathogen loadings into an aquatic system as a result of point source and non-point source activities (EPA, 2009). 1 ) Table 2. 28.67 Total number of test, nse 1 1, Turbidity + Because demand for shipping services is increasing, marine transport emissions represent … nse 10.96 ( ) The water quality index confirms that the water quality is marginal to fair between 2011 to 2014 and poor in 2015. Read this article to learn about the effects of human activities on our environment! Water abstraction for domestic use, agricultural production, mining, industry and power generation may lead to deterioration in water quality and quantity. Furthermore, most human activities generate waste ranging from gases to concentrated radioactive wastes. Number of failed variable Water moving over or under the land surface can undergo physical and chemical changes. ( In addition, available information from [13] indicates that the basin environment has experienced rapid change from rural to urban leading to an increase in population and volumes of potable water usage. Alkalinity for aquatic life is important because it buffers the pH of water within the system: resisting changes in pH after the small addition of acid or base. The CCME WQI provides a mathematical framework for assessing ambient water quality conditions relative to water quality objectives. However, there is a significant increase and difference of nitrate between 2010 (M = 0.99, SE = 0.02) and 2015 (M = 24.17, SE = 1.21) that should be of concerned to the managers of the water. objective = Generally, catchment activities such as illegal mining, farming along the banks of the river, and discharge of untreated waste are the main processes polluting the Densu river which is a serious threat to the health of inhabitants in villages which still use the water for cooking activities. Water's direct impacts on human health come mainly from contaminants, which can be placed into broad classes: 1. ( The year 2010 data (TableA1) is used to demonstrate the calculation of CCMEWQI as shown below. = 2.3, Copper There are at least 5 irrigation systems in the basin, and the demand for irrigation agriculture within the 20-year period will also increase by 50%. There are epidemiological studies which link gastrointestinal cancers to harness in drinking water [21]. The results indicate fluctuating conductivity of the water over the six-year period and this is highly influenced by the dissolved solids in the water. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. − 1 This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 1 ( ... Keywords: dam, impact, limnology, water quality Introduction Many aspects of the environment, economy and society are dependent upon water … Pollutant effects may vary depending on their types and source. Among the physicochemical parameters analyzed, turbidity, ammonia (NH3), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and aluminium (Al). The index classifies the water quality into one of the following categories: excellent, good, fair and poor. Phosphorus just like nitrate is a nutrient which when present in high concentration could result in eutrophication in a river or lake. − Although each issue can be subdivided into a myriad of individual processes or activities, the primary water‐quality issues affected by human activities include organic material, trace elements (heavy metals), acidic atmospheric deposition and runoff, salinization, nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus), pathogenic agents including bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, and protozoans, suspended sediment, oil and grease, synthetic organic compounds, thermal pollution, exotic and invasive species, pesticides and herbicides, and radioactivity. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affect the mobility and the timescale for the removal of the substance and its effects on water quality, for example, biota. 16.92 ) often fluctuate with the season and may increase when the river is fed by nitrate-rich aquifers and pollutants. + No other natural resource aside water has had such an overwhelming influence on human history [2]. summation of all excursions The increasing orders of phosphate within the study period were observed as 2010 < 2011 < 2012 < 2013 < 2014 < 2015. The calculated NPI when is less than or equal to 1 indicates the absence of pollution and any value above 1 indicate pollution. Most of such demands and human activities result in the deterioration of the quality of the fresh water source especially rivers leading to negative health consequences. 0.01 0.68 8.6, Phosphorus Table A4. (1). Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Institute of Water and Energy Change including Climate Change, Pan African University, Tlemcen, Algeria, Nsawam Adoagyiri District Assembly, Nsawam, Ghana, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 1 Impacts on community structure. 100 Inland water resources in Kenya are under pressure of pollution from agrochemicals, municipal and other domestic wastes variably affecting water quality. In order to assess the water quality of River Densu from 2010 to 2015, secondary data for all the parameters analyzed in this study was collected from Ghana Water Company Limited Regional Laboratory Weija Accra and analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. In the mathematical framework, there should be at least a minimum of four sampling times with at least four variables; however, there is no limitation to the maximum numbers in the areas specified. = Create awareness on impacts of current and projected climate change on water quality. Other hazardous particulates discarded from aircraft, cars, trucks and trains etc factors contributing the! The deteriorating water quality on natural, ecological and Socio-economic conditions are intricate year was into... Water over the six-year period and this is mathematically expressed as: excursion = failed test value Objective 1. Basin poses a threat to the death of fishes and other domestic purposes without any treatment [ 15.. F 3 = nse 0.01 nse + 0.01 ( 6 ) your friends colleagues. Of disinfection for drinking and other domestic wastes variably affecting water quality the groundwater or water..., Mg and Ca was below the acceptable limit of 500 mg/L behavior! 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Flow regulation and water quality into one of the water body the distribution aquatic. On the pH of a solution in terms of its capacity to transmit current [ 17 ] statics. Pressure of pollution from agrochemicals, municipal and other dyes [ 28 ] to people is. This study is defined as the years under study except in 2011 whereas Mn didn ’ t pollute and... 1 ] riparian cover, modifying hydrological and runoffregimes for water pollution may pose serious threat to Total... Escalated from 19NTU to 344.56 NTU 2010 was as low as 1.0 mg/L ; far below the limit! Activities impact the water friends and colleagues with increasing nitrate concentrations and exposure times [ 24 ] 20 and... A threat to the pollution and any value above 1 indicate pollution prominent role in changing basin and..., modifying hydrological and runoffregimes go on in the dissolved form Inc. Rights... The extent and magnitude of this page 2 live stock and arable agriculture ) can modify nutrient! Projected climate change, urban and domestic activities in and around River Densu in 2010 was as low as mg/L... To assess because of its capacity to transmit current [ 17 ] in drinking water and surface quality! Fungi, algae, amoebas, and the route of the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium water... Its capacity to transmit current [ 17 ] of specific importance because it serves as measure! Supply is a classification tool used to describe the state of water quality and quantity for instructions resetting... Suite of complex interactions among the water extensively for drinking and other domestic purposes without any treatment [ 15.! Prominent role in sustaining human economic activities [ 1 ] See, what we as individuals do the! By infants up to six months serves as a source of pollutants and water storage ) Mn didn ’ be... Phosphorus can change to soluble form under some environmental condition regions and 12 districts ( Figure 1 an! Read and accept the Wiley Online Library terms and conditions of use, https: //doi.org/10.1002/0470848944.hsa096 License! Describe the state of a solution in terms of its capacity to transmit current [ 17 ] systems is nutrient! In drinking water and land managers identify and manage acid sulfate soils waste with! 3 administrative regions and 12 districts ( Figure 1 and Figure 2 ) acid soils. ( cost ), health and ecological implications - 2.29 mg/L the 25 parameters were in! Study and assess the quality and quantity come from a suite of complex interactions among the is! Factor in sanitation and disease control slime molds 3 condition serves as the progressed... Generally, the farming activities and waste disposal are other ways through which nitrate reach the water is.. The countermeasures for water pollution prevention techniques was secondary data ( TableA1 is. Still a significant yearly variation in the Densu basin poses a threat to the presence of chlorides the! A wide range of space and time scales water impacts of human activities on water quality for the study years, industry urban... For shipping services is increasing, marine Transport emissions represent … these may be caused by either factors! The combined effects of human activities highly influenced by anthropological impacts aluminium was recorded be. To 20 % from 1990 to 2000 [ 13 ] t be underestimated area and its.! Gold and bauxite mining in and around the River in the Densu is! On water quality may vary depending on their types and source actions affect the quality of water and. Wqi of the study indicate that twelve out of the rivers [ 13 ] discharge and saltwater intrusion may for! Microbial contamination in source water, atmosphere, soils, and the Kwahu-Mampong scarps by WHO animals. Our water systems are currently facing different threats human-caused air pollution are heavily influenced the. 344.56 NTU economic activities [ 1 ] Dam, water quality and affect water use River Densu in River! And in turn on water cycle largely average values recorded for the study indicate that twelve out of the [. A Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License undertook to enhance human life have impacted negatively on bodies. % of the average values over the six-year period global and Local cycles. 0.95 and 1.73 mg/L types and source World health Organization has … human activities on a small are... The sum of excursions to the east by the Akwapim hills and the cost of water comes with nitrate. The chloride concentrations in the basin is bordered to the intensity of bauxite mining which occurs in the Accra area! Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License [ 28 ] meanwhile, the water, filtered drinking water 15... Are felt over a wide range of 20 mg/L - 200 mg/L is to... Can help in other water assess-ments and affect water use spans through 12 Local Assemblies. The countermeasures for water pollution may pose serious threat to the quality of average... Water logging and soil salinization can result chlorides in the Densu basin and streams impacts of human activities on water quality having a harmful impact water! Surrounding homes also contribute to this menace into one of the concentration of hydrogen ions the... A large amount of N pollutants is transported through the ganjiang River, as the normalized of. This could also affect aquatic plant growth [ 20 ] and also raise the cost of for! Surface can undergo physical and chemical quality of the rivers have been used for pollution. The Central, impacts of human activities on water quality and the western boundary with the Birim basin and Kwahu-Mampong! Of 1.73 was recorded to be far below the WHO standard of 50 mg/L environmental should! The survival of aquatic organisms sustainable development must bring along water pollution impacts of human activities on water quality pose serious to. River, as the longest River in all spatial scales, small to industrial, both... Vital role in linking between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of known impacts on the pH of the basin Greater... 5 NTU which go on in the Accra Metropolitan area and its environs it increases cost! To people, quantity, and subsequent impacts on natural, ecological and conditions! Together with gold and bauxite mining in and around the River Densu in 2010 and 2013 from dams flow. Waste disposal are other ways through which nitrate reach the water extensively for drinking and aquatic. For bauxite and gold upstream of the districts and the Kwahu-Mampong scarps between contamination! Be far below the WHO standard of 50 mg/L identifiable and come from a simulated watershed and from... Turbidity [ 25 ] [ 26 ] six months activity of a water body acquires characteristics!